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Опубликовано 23.07.2017 | Автор:

The European driving licence is a driving licence replacing the many driving licence styles already in use in the member states of the European Economic Area EEA all 28 EU member states as well as 3 EFTA member states ; Iceland , Liechtenstein and Norway. It has the credit card-style with a photograph and possibly a microchip. They were introduced to replace the different plastic and paper driving licences of the million drivers in the EEA. The main objective of the licence is to decrease the risk of fraud. A driving licence issued by a member state of the EEA, is recognised throughout the EEA and can be used as long as it is valid, the driver is old enough to drive a vehicle of the equivalent category and the licence is not suspended or restricted and has not been revoked in the issuing country.

If the holder of an EEA driving licence moves to another EEA country, the licence can be exchanged for a driving licence from the new EEA country. However as all EEA driving licences are recognised throughout the EEA, it is not necessary to exchange it. When holding a converted licence, one should not assume the licence can be exchanged when moving to another EEA country. This only applies when permanently relocating to a different EEA country, as a tourist, an EEA-licence issued in exchange of a non-EEA licence is recognised throughout the EEA.

It also established the practice of exchange of licences by holders moving from one Member State to another. The directive required EU Member States to adopt laws implementing the directive before 1 July , which laws would take effect on 1 July It furthermore establishes an obligatory test of knowledge theory and a test of skills and behaviour practical which has to be successfully passed before an individual is offered a driving licence. It also requires an applicant to meet the minimum standards of physical and mental fitness to drive. The directive specifies the minimum ages for driving different types of vehicles, and establishes progressive access in categories A, C, and D, from light vehicles to larger or more powerful vehicles.

The directive stipulates that it is mandatory to have the normal residence in the Member State issuing the licence. The Directive has been substantially amended by nine directives and two acts of accession. The licence is a credit-card-style, single plastic-coated document, very difficult to falsify. The document will be renewable every 10 or 15 years depending on the member state.

Several member states will have the option to include a microchip containing information about the card holder on the card. Some categories like C and D will be issued for five years only. After expiration, a medical check-up is necessary in order to renew the licence for another five years. The directive stipulates that all 31 EEA members states should adopt laws implementing the directive no later than 19 January Those laws should take effect in all EEA members states on 19 January All licences issued before that date will become invalid by As of , 31 countries in Europe participate: This coincides with the 28 member states of the European Union EU and 3 member states of the European Free Trade Association EFTA.

The last member state of EFTA, Switzerland is not party to the EEA agreement, and is instead linked to the EU by a series of bilateral agreements. To help users of different languages to understand what each of the data fields on the licence contains, they are labelled with a number. Though the EU directive states, this to be other names, local variations may occur b: The addition of the personal number, is a local variation. The EU directive states that 4 d is optional and should be a number other than the one listed under number 5 c: The address is optional in the EU directive, and thus not implemented by all countries d: Furthermore there are more national categories for tractors, large motorcycles, motorised wheel boats, motor tricycles modern voiturettes , Category B1 or S and military categories such as for driving tanks.

National categories mean they are not harmonised and only valid within the issuing country. Even though Switzerland is a EFTA member state, it is not a member of the European Economic Area. Switzerland has, however, generally adopted much of the harmonised EU legislation with regard to driving licences. Swiss licences can be exchanged in most EEA countries.

Switzerland has, since the s, used the EU system of vehicle categories and issued EEA-style credit-card licences. To apply for a car driving licence category B , the applicant must be 18 years old. They must first attend first aid courses and pass an eyesight test. This allows holders to drive a car only if accompanied by an aged 23 or more who has had a full driving licence for a minimum of three years.

Before passing the practical exam, the candidate must attend 10 hours of theory lessons on "familiarisation to road traffic". Practical driving lessons are not legally required but are considered a de facto prerequisite for passing the practical exam [taken] with a government official [Driving Test Examiner].

Driver b

Upon succeeding the practical exam, a probationary driving licence is issued for three years. To obtain the full, unlimited, driving licence after these three years, the candidate must not commit a serious traffic offence and attend two days of further driving training. For motorcycles and heavier vehicles, the regulations are different, and some agrarian vehicles can be driven without a licence. As of , a minute driving lesson costs around 90 CHF, while the various fees and theoretical instruction costs associated with getting a car driving licence can amount to up to CHF , without counting the costs for the two days of further training.

The theoretical exam must be taken in either German , French or Italian. In some cantons, it is possible to take it in English. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the driving licences for vehicles issued by member states of the EEA. For the computer literacy certification, see European Computer Driving Licence. Official Journal of the European Union. Changes to the Minimum Ages and Test Requirements to obtain a Driving Licence". Pre —57 —72 —93 — Since Extreme points Largest municipalities Urban areas Larger urban zones Member states Regions first-level NUTS Special territories.

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This page was last edited on 26 July , at Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view. Access to unified driving licence in any of the 31 EEA member states. Until 19 January this class was called "M" in Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Ireland and Norway.

B licence holders in Czech Republic only motorcycles with automatic transmission , Italy, Latvia, Malta, Slovakia after two years and only motorcycles with automatic transmission , Spain after three years , Poland after three years , Portugal at least 25 years old or additional licence for mopeds and Belgium only with a Belgian Driving Licence, after two years are allowed to drive motorcycles not exceeding cc within the respective countries.

In Austria after five years, training of 6 hours , France after two years, a training of 7 hours , Luxembourg after two years, training of 7 hours and the United Kingdom Compulsory Basic Training , a practical training without exam is needed for B licence holders. Replaced class "A" on 19 January in Malta. This requirement as to previous experience may be waived if the candidate is at least 24 years old Switzerland: Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Latvia, Spain and the United Kingdom. In France, a practical training at least 7 hours without an exam is needed for B licence holders who want to drive motor tricycles only.

In France, this option is available only after at least two years of B licence. The limit in the first condition is: The limit for in the second condition is: Large goods vehicle with a maximum authorised mass of not more than 7. Large goods vehicle with a maximum authorised mass of more than 3. Motor vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of no more than 16 passengers in addition to the driver.

Includes articulated buses at least in the UK and in Germany. Begleitetes Fahren — Accompanied driving: Germany and Austria introduced this model a few years ago to decrease the accident rate among young drivers. When the driver reaches legal age BFlicences are exchanged for B-licences.

Snowmobile — The national vehicle category S gives permission to drive snowmobiles within Norway.

Tractor — The national vehicle category T gives permission to drive tractors within Norway. Vehicle towing limit still applies.

Driver b

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