Hand Driver - Tuckaway

Опубликовано 24.07.2017 | Автор:

The terms right-hand traffic RHT and left-hand traffic LHT refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic , unless otherwise directed, to keep to the right or to the left side of the road, respectively. During the s many countries standardised within their jurisdictions, and changed from LHT to RHT, mostly to conform with regional custom. From to , 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT. Many of the countries with LHT are former British colonies in the Caribbean , Southern Africa , Southeast Asia , South Asia , Australia , and New Zealand. Japan , Thailand , Nepal , Bhutan , Mozambique , Suriname , East Timor , and Indonesia are among those LHT countries outside the former British Empire.

In Europe , only four countries still drive on the left: Nearly all countries use one side or the other throughout their entire territory. Most exceptions are due to historical considerations and involve islands with no road connection to the main part of a country. China is RHT except the Special Administrative Regions of China of Hong Kong and Macau. The United States is RHT except the United States Virgin Islands. According to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea , water traffic is RHT. For aircraft the US Federal Aviation Regulations provide for passing on the right, both in the air and on water.

Light rail vehicles generally operate on the same side as road traffic in a country.

Some countries use RHT for automobiles but LHT for trains, often because of the influence of the British on early railway systems. There is no technical reason to prefer one side over the other. Ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Roman troops kept to the left when marching.

The grooves in the road on the left side viewed facing down the track away from the quarry were much deeper than those on the right side, suggesting LHT, at least at this location, since carts would exit the quarry heavily loaded, and enter it empty.

The first reference in English law to an order for LHT was in , with regard to London Bridge. Northcote Parkinson , believed that ancient travellers on horseback or on foot generally kept to the left, since most people were right handed.

If two men riding on horseback were to start a fight, each would edge toward the left. Seated on the left, the driver preferred that other wagons pass him on the left so that he could be sure to keep clear of the wheels of oncoming wagons. In France, traditionally foot traffic had kept right, while carriage traffic kept left.

Following the French Revolution , all traffic kept right. Meanwhile, LHT traffic was introduced by the British in Atlantic Canada , Australia, New Zealand, the East Africa Protectorate , British India , Southern Rhodesia and the Cape Colony now Zimbabwe and South Africa , British Malaya now Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore , British Guiana , and British Hong Kong. LHT was also introduced by the Portuguese Empire in Portuguese Macau , Colonial Brazil , East Timor, Portuguese Mozambique , and Angola. The first keep-right law for driving in the United States was passed in and applied to the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike.

Influential in Europe was the Paris Convention, which advised driving on the right-hand side of the road, in order to harmonise traffic across a continent with many borders. This was despite the fact that left-hand traffic was still widespread: Sweden was LHT from about to , [17] despite having land borders with RHT countries, and approximately 90 percent of cars being left-hand drive LHD vehicles. Nevertheless, some years later the government ordered a conversion, which took place at 5 am on Sunday, 3 September The accident rate dropped sharply after the change, [19] but soon rose back to near its original level.

When Iceland switched the following year, it was known as H-dagurinn , again meaning "H-Day". In the late s, the UK Department for Transport considered switching to RHT, but declared it unsafe and too costly for such a built-up nation.

Taiwan changed to driving on the right at the same time. Hong Kong and Macau continue to be LHT. Myanmar switched to RHT in Samoa , a former German colony, had been RHT for more than a century. It switched to LHT in , [25] being the first territory in almost 30 years to switch. There were no reported incidents. RHT was formally finalised by Executive Order No. A number of non-contiguous former British colonies in West Africa originally drove LHT and switched to RHT in the early s to match the surrounding countries.

Sierra Leone switched to RHT in , Nigeria in and Ghana in Before this period The Gambia , a country entirely contained within RHT Senegal, had officially switched to RHT in Rwanda , a former Belgian colony in central Africa, is RHT but is considering switching to LHT, to bring the country in line with other members of the East African Community EAC. Reasons cited were the perceived lower costs of RHD vehicles as opposed to LHD versions of the same model, easier maintenance and the political benefit of harmonisation of traffic regulations with other EAC countries.

The same survey also indicated that RHD cars are 16 to 49 per cent cheaper than their LHD equivalents. Although many LHT jurisdictions are on islands, there are cases where vehicles may be driven from LHT across a border into a RHT area. The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic regulates the use of foreign registered vehicles in the 72 countries that are parties to the agreement.

Although the United Kingdom is separated from Continental Europe by the English Channel , the level of cross-Channel traffic is very high; the Channel Tunnel alone carries 3. LHT Thailand has three RHT neighbours: Most of its borders use a simple traffic light to do the switch, but there are also interchanges which enable the switch while keeping up a continuous flow of traffic. There are four road border crossing points between Hong Kong and Mainland China. In , the daily average number of vehicle trips recorded at Lok Ma Chau was 31, The Takutu River Bridge which links LHT Guyana and RHT Brazil [45] is the only border in the Americas where traffic changes sides.

In RHT jurisdictions, vehicles are configured with LHD, with the driver sitting on the left side. In LHT jurisdictions, the reverse is true. Historically there was less consistency in the relationship of the position of the driver to the handedness of traffic.

Most American cars produced before were RHD.

How To Do Hand Over Hand Steering (Driving Lesson For Beginners)

Generally, the convention is to mount a motorcycle on the left, [49] and kickstands are usually on the left [50] which makes it more convenient to mount on the safer kerbside [50] as is the case in LHT. The projection of light from low-beam headlamps is asymmetrical. The kerbside lamp projects light forwards, while the other headlamp dips the beam down and away from oncoming traffic, so as not to dazzle drivers coming in the opposite direction. In Europe, headlamps approved for use on one side of the road must be adaptable to produce adequate illumination with controlled glare for temporarily driving on the other side of the road.

Of the countries currently recognised by the United Nations , use RHT and 54 use LHT. A country and its territories and dependencies is counted once. Vehicles entering and leaving Macau cross over each other at the Lotus Bridge. The entrance to the Channel Tunnel in France. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Society of Automotive Engineers. An International Guide to History and Practice. A case study of standards change" PDF. United States Department of Transportation. Puzzles and Essays from the Exchange Essays. ARA The Bulletin of The Association for Roman Archaeology.

Archived from the original on 3 December Archived from the original on 18 October Whose side of the road are you on? Dewey Boulevard during the Japanese occupation. Original video clips from a Japanese propaganda film shot in early European Transport Research Review.

Driver hand

The Battle for Supremacy between Ford and Olds and the Dawn of the Automobile Age. Location of the Steering Wheel Archived 21 September at the Wayback Machine. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Touring Club do Brasil in Portuguese.

In a country where vehicular documents were valid only citywide and some states adopted left-hand traffic. The common obligations to vehicle drivers are; a Keep to the right, driving the closest as possible to the roadside, letting their left side free for vehicles overtaking or for oncoming traffic.

Why do some countries drive on the right side? The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile Vol. From Right-Hand Driving to Left; Extra Policemen Assigned". Swop Over Point for the Traffic! All-way stop Assured Clear Distance Ahead Australian Road Rules Boulevard rule Green Cross Code Move over law New Zealand Road Code Overtaking Right- and left-hand traffic Right-of-way School bus traffic stop laws Traffic code Turn on red Vienna Convention on Road Traffic.

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Driver hand

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view. Was LHT until the s, in line with neighbouring British Raj and later Pakistan. Originally LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary. Switched to same side as neighbours. A Portuguese colony until the early 19th century , switched some states still using LHT [59] to RHT in Switched sides after the collapse of Austria-Hungary. Considering switching to LHT [61] in line with neighbours Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. RHT implemented while part of French Indochina.

Territories now in Canada have always been RHT, except British Columbia , which changed to RHT in stages from to , [63] [64] and New Brunswick , Nova Scotia , and Prince Edward Island which changed in , , and respectively. At one time, northern provinces were RHT due to American influence, while southern provinces were LHT due to British influence. Most metro systems use RHT, with the exception of the Hong Kong MTR. Unlike most of Austria-Hungary was RHT but changed to LHT during the First World War.

Switched to RHT on joining the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Was LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary, switched during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. Originally LHT, like its colonial power Portugal. Switched to RHT with Portugal in Road vehicles are RHT due to French influence, but railway system was built by British companies. Formerly ruled by LHT Sweden, switched to RHT as the Grand Duchy of Finland by Russian decree. When changing to RHT a Twi language slogan was "Nifa, Nifa Enan" or "Right, Right, Fourth". Originally LHT, like most of Austria-Hungary.

Until the countryside was RHT while cities were LHT. Alfa Romeo and Lancia did not produce LHD cars until as late as and respectively, as many drivers favoured the RHD layout even in RHT as this offered the driver a clearer view of the edge of the road in mountainous regions at a time when many such roads lacked barriers or walls.

Driver hand

Post- World War II Okinawa was ruled by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands and was RHT. It was returned to Japan in went LHT in Okinawa is one of few places to have changed from RHT to LHT in the late 20th century. RHT, despite the Mandate for Palestine and the Transjordan memorandum being under British rule till Korea had been LHT because of the influence of Japan in the s.

Switched to RHT under Soviet and American occupation after Former part of RHT Soviet Union. In , over 20, cheaper used RHD cars were imported from Japan. Much of infrastructure still geared to LHT, most cars are pre-owned RHD vehicles, imported from Japan.

After South Africa occupied German South-West Africa during World War I, switched to LHT. Not a party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic and bans all foreign-registered RHD vehicles. LHT up until the Battle of Manila in Partitions of Poland belonging to the German Empire and the Russian Empire were RHT.

Partitions that were part of Austria-Hungary were LHT and changed to RHT in the s. Colonies Goa , Macau and Mozambique, which had land borders with LHT countries, did not switch and continue to drive on the left. Considering switching to LHT [61] [91] like its neighbours Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Switched to LHT to allow the import cars more cheaply from Australia, New Zealand and Japan. Vojvodina was LHT while part of Austria-Hungary.

Importation of RHD vehicles was banned in Was LHT during the period of British colonial rule. Split from Sudan in after the majority of the population voted for independence. Up to the s Barcelona was RHT, and Madrid was LHT until Was LHT during the period of Japanese rule. The government of the Republic of China changed Taiwan to RHT in along with the rest of China. One of the few LHT countries not a former British colony. Shares long land border with RHT Laos and Cambodia. French RHT was enforced in the French protectorate of Tunisia from West Ukraine was LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary.

Carpathian Ruthenia remained LHT as part of Czechoslovakia before switching in as part of Hungary. The rest of Ukraine, having been part of the Russian Empire , already drove on the right. Gibraltar has been RHT since because of its land border with Spain. Virgin Islands is LHT, like much of the Caribbean.

Became LHT in , but as in some other countries in South America, changed to RHT on 2 September South Yemen , formerly the British colony of Aden , changed to RHT A series of postage stamps commemorating the event was issued. In the government attempted to ban LHD vehicles. Pedestrians crossing a two-way road look first for traffic from their. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Right- and left-hand traffic. Interchanges grade-separated Cloverleaf Diamond Free-flow Directional T Diverging diamond Parclo Raindrop Roundabout Single-point urban SPUI Stack Three-level diamond Trumpet.

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